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Notes to Accompany One Plan and Three Verti-
cal Sections of the Athabasca nine, on Toad
Mountain, near Nelson, British Columbia.
By U. Nklson- Fi',r.i„ A.R.S..M., Nelson, 1!.C.
Tlie vein cuts across a wfll defined conta n hetweet) a schistose
eruptive rock and a more recent granite. This rrea of schistose ro( ks
ard its no them contact with tiie granitoid area is shown in the recon-
naissance map, published in Part li, Annual Report, \"ol. I\' , of the
Geological Survey of Canada (Dr. I)av\-son"s Rejiort, iSSq).
It is a narrow vein about one foot in width ; the gangue is (|uarl/,
heavily charged with sul()hides of iron, zinc and lead, containing high
values m gold and about the same number of ounces of silver as ounces
'The chief characteristics of :he vein arc : that it is remarkably well
defined; that it is very continuous ; tliat it is broken by inn-jmerable
faults, some of which have occasioned considerable dis[)lacement of the
vein ; that it passes from the schist in»o the granite without any inter-
ruption or disturhance : that the values encotuitetcd in the granite are
good, but not so good as those in tiie schist, with a tendency, perhaps,
to be a little pockety.
In the maps herewith, the granite is indicated by crosses, the schist
is in blank.
The discovery of the vein was made and work was commenced on
a prominent ex[)osure in the granite. A tunnel was run in at the point
marked on the plan " Main tunnel entrance," and a shaft was sunk on
the vein near the i)ortal and the vein stoped out down to ? fault; to
recover the vein on the other side of this fault, crosscuts were put in,
both on the hanging and the foot-wall side, but without result
The " Main tunnel " was then carried on into the schist, and,
shortly afterwards, encountered what was then supposed to be a second
vein. This vein was very flat, and disturbed by a most remarkable
series of faults, running in every possible direction. The faults were,
■ ■ ■ . . .
7hf Ciinadiaii Mining Institute.
prartiVally always, normal: atul. iti foliowitiR the vein ii|) |„ tlie surface,
there was a general ten<len(y lo a downward throw at ea( h fault running
ea^t and west (section through C.I) ) and an upward throw at each fault
ruruiing north and south (.'•ection througl V. I'.).
Associated with the vein (in the s. hist especially) are numerous
aplite (acidic; dykes of earlier origin than the veui, and minctte (basic)
dykes ol later origin than the vein One of the latter follows a prominent
fault plane thoughout the mine and is shown in section thiough C.I).
Not only is the vein faulted, hut it is suhje< t to remarkable roll., in the
course of which it sometimes assumes a horizontal position and some-
times a sharp " dip upwards," if I nr.iy use the cvpression. This is
especially noticeahle along the contact o.' the granite and the schist. As
a result of these displacements, drifts are fre.|uently seen at the same
hoi/on, although 150 feet apart on the dip of the vein.
It is hardly necessary to say that to meet these extraordinary con-
ditions, an extraordinary system of mining was necessary, which was
inc -nvenient and expensive and could not have been carried out at all,
unless the gold contents had remained persistently high.
At the twis of the main tunnel, the ground became unusually dis-
turbed ; sloping had to be abandoned here and a small shaft was i)ut
down from the point marked " Hoist Station." which ultimately passed
into the granite. Along the contact, both in the schist and to a lesser
extent in the granite, a remarkable concentration of values occurred
which yielded very fine results in the mill : but below the contact in the
shaft, and in the drifts to the west of the shaft, the vein was found in
patches only, cut off by faults every few feet and thrown by each fault
from 50 to 100 feet.
P:astward from th<; shaft, No. 2 East was carried about 500 feet,
meeting the vein in fine condition about 200 feet east of the shaft, and
carrying it to the present face, without faults, well defined, with a regular
dip of about 45°.
As this work proceeded, it became more and more evident, until
there was finally no room for doubt, that this vein was the same as that
on which Shaft No. i had been sunk, and that we had now come round,
on the other side of the fault, to a p lint on the vein which lay about
NATIONAL UBHARY 1
I I H — I ■ IT*
Nrtes on the AfhalHtsca Mine, Toad Mouii. li.
The Canadian Afinihg /mti
220 feet from tlvj point wlirrc it faiiliitl. 'Hh thro, tlu- vein along
the ili|) of tlic faiih was .-ilioiit 175 fi-ct. 'Ihf outcrop on th. sutfa< c
was then sou^^ht for and ini ov, r,<l iiiuJir thi: wasli. This is ilhi^tratcd
ill the stiction through \ H. It is an interesting matter lo' s.,eculatiot>
as to vvhat the results might iiave l)een, had the work originally hcen
done at this outcrop, in ,te;>d of at the holder and richer ouk rop l.clow.
It is n • impossible that the history ol the mine would ha\e heen
A few f,eneral points may I'C sunuiied up as noteworthy.
Firstly : tiiat the vein occurs cutting hotii granite and S( hi.st.
Secondly: that there is a remarkable concentration of values along
the contact, pspeciaily on the s. hist side.
Thirdly: that the values in the granite do not avera-e as well as
in the schi.t ; the vein being inclined to be m..,e iiiumh, both in si/e
Foiitthly: that the vein in the granite is louiid in a more normal
condition and is better adapted for miring.
Tijtlily: that in the schist the vein is fat and ver> much disturbed
by faults and fc'ds, and finally enters upon an area ui grcund win. h is
so shattered that all traces of the vein are lost. It ., i)robable that it
will be recovered here at so'iie deejier point, approach being made from
5/.v////r.- that extrenie caution must be exercised in undertaking
the opening up ul a vein in shattered ground of this kin Thtories of
p.ir.illel ore bodies and numerous veins may be rudely dispelled by
events, and the plan of work must be held continually subject to mod-
ification. Only the most shadowy estimates can at any time be i.iade
of ore in sight, and the plan of operation, can only be outlined in a
vague way. To open up a mine of this description i. ai entirely differ-
ent proposition to that of opening up a regular ore Lody. It would
appear, however, that the vein, where it i.s now being worked in th>!
grnnite, has at last repched a condition of permanency, and it is likely
that it will retain this character, as further depth is attained.
I have attempted to outline the doubts and difficulties connected
with opening up an ore body of this charai ter, This is a class of min-
TABLE or ALTITUDES
The Canadian Mining Institute.
ing, however, which opens up attractive possibilities and cannot be
neglected. This vein yielded in thirty months $350,000 from 11,500
tons of ore. It is an open question whether the system of limited
liability company organization is adapted to a mining proposition of this
kind. For conducting large operations on lines which can be definitely
and permanently foreseen and laid out, the present system is no doubt
to be preferred. l!ut I believe that a system of assessable stock would
be found to be more economical and, speaking generally, more suitable
for working a property of the kind under discussion.
The maps above referred to were prepared by Mr. H. W. Mussen,
superintendent of the mine.